While nursing, pets receive antibodies and nutrients from their mother’s milk. When nursing stops, pets become more susceptible to illnesses because their immune systems do not have the same support they once did. As part of a preventative care routine, pet vaccinations can help protect your pet from life-threatening diseases.
For most pets, routine vaccinations start around the age of 8 weeks old and continue regularly throughout adulthood. Some vaccinations are even combined into a single syringe so a pet experiences fewer injections. After being vaccinated, most young pets take about 5 days to build protective antibodies with complete protection taking place after 14 days. Some vaccines require multiple dosages given over a short period of time, and most require booster shots every 6 months to 3 years. Pets who have been vaccinated have an advantage over those who have not. When a disease is detected, your vaccinated pet’s immune system quickly responds, decreasing severity of the illness or preventing it altogether. While it is rare, some pets do not develop immunity from their vaccinations and still become ill. If your pet has been vaccinated, is current on all of their booster shots, and has never shown signs of illness or disease, it has likely been successfully vaccinated.
Pet owners should note that vaccinations are preventative, not curative. A vaccination will prevent an illness, but if your pet is already suffering from a disease, a vaccine will not cure them.
Bordetella (kennel cough) – The vaccination is first given to puppies when they are 8 weeks old, and it is repeated a full 4 weeks later. Booster shots are then given every 12 months, depending on the dog’s exposure.
Distemper, Hepatitis, Parainfluenza, Parvovirus (DHPP) – Your puppy will receive their first vaccination at 8 weeks old, and booster shots will be given once every 4 weeks until your puppy is 15 to 18 weeks old. A booster vaccination is administered every 12 months afterwards.
Leptospirosis – An annual vaccination that is intended to prevent bacterial infections in the kidneys, liver, and other major organs. First given at 12 weeks your puppy will receive a booster 4 weeks after then every 12 months.
Lyme – The Lyme vaccination is first administered when the puppy reaches 12 weeks old. The first booster is given to the puppy at 16 weeks old, and annual boosters are recommended for dogs that reside in areas with increased exposure to ticks carrying Lyme disease.
Rabies – Many states require pets to have the Rabies Vaccine by law, but there are a few exceptions. The initial vaccine is first given when the puppy reaches 16 weeks old. A booster shot is necessary after 1 year, then typically every 3rd year following that.
Feline Herpesvirus, Calici Virus, Feline Distemper - Your kitten will receive their first vaccinations at 8 weeks, and they will need to be repeated once every 4 weeks until your kitten reaches 15 to 17 weeks old. A booster vaccination is administered annually for Feline Rhinotracheitis and Calici Virus. Feline Distemper boosters are given every year.
Feline Leukemia (FeLV) – Feline Leukemia is the number one cause of death in cats. The first vaccine is given when a kitten is 12 weeks old and the first booster is administered when the cat reaches 16 weeks old. Booster shots are recommended to be updated annually at pet wellness exams.
Rabies – This vaccine is also a core vaccination for kittens. The initial vaccine is first administered at 16 weeks of age. A booster shot is necessary after 1 year, then typically every 3 years following that.
Pet vaccination concerns
Similar to human vaccinations, pet vaccinations do carry a risk of side-effects. While negative side-effects do exist, it is important to note that your pet is statistically more likely to develop a life-threatening illness when not vaccinated, than to suffer adverse results from a vaccination. None-the-less, it is important to remain informed so you can ask your veterinarian the appropriate questions at your pet’s appointment.
After being vaccinated, the injection site can be swollen or sore. Some pets also have a reduced appetite, fever, and experience lethargy. These side-effects should diminish over the next 24 to 48 hours. If you notice your pet’s side-effects are not subsiding, please contact our office. Very rarely, pets develop an allergy to a vaccine. Allergies can be detected within minutes of receiving a vaccination and if left untreated, can result in death. If you witness any of the following, contact our office immediately: collapse, non-stop diarrhea, continual vomiting, difficulty breathing, itching, or swelling of the legs or face.
Regulations regarding rabies vaccinations
While the federal government does not mandate pet vaccinations for rabies, most states implement their own laws regarding pet vaccination. Vaccination laws also vary from country to country, so if you plan on moving, be sure to check necessary requirements to ensure a smooth transition for your family.
States in which your pet can receive exemption from being vaccinated include: Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maine, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey (dogs only), New York, Oregon (dogs only), Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin. All other states require rabies vaccinations by law - for all pets.
If you have any questions about vaccinations or scheduling new pet vaccinations, you may contact our office at your convenience.